SCALLOWAY, a village, in the district of Tingwall, parish of Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale, county of Shetland, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Lerwick; containing 405 inhabitants. This place, the name of which is said to signify "the harbour by the mansion-houses," was in ancient times the capital of Shetland, a burgh, and the occasional residence of the earls of Orkney and Shetland, as well as of nearly all the persons of consideration belonging to the islands. After the cession of Shetland to the crown of Scotland, the principal court of law, which under the crown of Denmark had been held in a small island in the loch of Tingwall, was removed to Scalloway, and the Foud or chief magistrate himself resided here. But the most memorable facts connected with the history of the place, relate to the government and tyranny of Earl Patrick Stewart, who, in 1600, obtained from the crown a grant of the Shetland Isles, and erected a splendid castle at Scalloway, the ruins of which are still imposing. Here he took up his residence, and so cruelly oppressed the inhabitants by laying on them numberless intolerable burthens, and by other abuse of his unlimited authority, which placed their lives at his disposal, that the parliament, about the year 1612, in consequence of an appeal from the inhabitants, revoked his charter, and annexed the lordship to the crown; and the earl, two years afterwards, was executed for high treason. The village is situated at the south-western extremity of the Tingwall district, at the foot of a valley consisting of one of the finest and most fertile tracts in the country, having a rich soil incumbent on a stratum of valuable grey limestone. East of Scalloway stands the ancient castle, on the margin of one of the best harbours in the locality, called Scalloway Voe: the building was occupied in the time of Cromwell as barracks by his soldiery, who are said to have introduced the cultivation of the cabbage, with other improvements. Mr. Scott, the chief proprietor, has a residence and garden in the village, where there are several other good family houses; but it is principally distinguished as a fishing-station, and has risen to a condition of much prosperity within the last few years, chiefly through the attention paid to the taking of herrings, about 15,000 barrels of which were shipped in a recent year. A church has been lately erected for the benefit of the village and neighbourhood; and there is a small place of worship for Independents; also a school supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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